Quiz 5 (Angel-format input file)
True or False? (1 point each) SELECT: 4 Q: Berkeley thought that every existent was composed of matter and form. A. True B. False ANSWER: B TYPE: MC POINTS: 1 Q: Locke thought that something must exist "standing under" the qualities, but admitted he had no idea what that "substance" might be. A. True B. False ANSWER: A TYPE: MC POINTS: 1 Q: Aristotle was a forerunner of modern rationalism. A. True B. False ANSWER: B TYPE: MC POINTS: 1 Q: John Locke, George Berkeley, and David Hume were modern empiricists. A. True B. False ANSWER: A TYPE: MC POINTS: 1 Q: According to Locke, the primary qualities of an object tell us about an object as it really is. A. True B. False ANSWER: A TYPE: MC POINTS: 1 Fill in the blanks. (1 point each) SELECT: 4 Q: The epistemological view that knowledge arises primarily or solely from the senses is called A. empiricism ANSWER: empiricism TYPE: FB POINTS: 1 Q: According to Locke, size and weight are what kind of qualities (properties) of an object? A. primary ANSWER: primary TYPE: FB POINTS: 1 Q: Locke's view that we know the world through some sense data (qualities) that impact our sense organs and create resemblances or representations (hint, hint) of objects in our brains, is called A. representative realism ANSWER: representative realism TYPE: FB POINTS: 1 Q: The epistemological view that concepts are generalized ideas existing only in the mind, derived by "abstraction" from real similarities in nature, is called A. conceptualism ANSWER: conceptualism TYPE: FB POINTS: 1 Q: The principle "Do not multiply entities beyond necessity" is called A. Ockhams's razor B. Occam's razor ANSWER: A, Ockhams's razor, B, Occam's razor TYPE: FB POINTS: 1 Q: Berkeley says that to be is to be perceived (esse est percipi), but that our ideas are continuous and consistent ("things" don't flash in and out of existence depending on whether they're being perceived) because of the watchful attention of A. God ANSWER: God TYPE: FB POINTS: 1 Q: According to Locke, smell and taste are what kind of qualities (properties) of an object? A. secondary ANSWER: secondary TYPE: FB POINTS: 1 Q: __________________________________ is the view that any mental state can be analyzed into simple, discrete perceptual units (sense data), so that the total mental state is a fusion of the "atomic" (hint, hint) states. A. psychological atomism ANSWER: psychological atomism TYPE: FB POINTS: 1 Essays. (2 points each) SELECT: 2 Q: How does Berkeley's empiricism differ from Locke's? (Be sure to give Berkeley's reasons for disagreeing with Locke.) TYPE: ES POINTS: 2 ANSWER: Berkeley rejected Locke's notion of primary qualities. Berkeley said all qualities are secondary, because qualities are mental events. Measuring the weight of a brick is just as much a mental event as tasting a brownie, in that BOTH reduce to sense-data, which are mental. From this, Berkeley infers that EVERYTHING we sense is mental, i.e., sense-data prove nothing about the existence of any material world; so Berkeley becomes a metaphysical idealist, whereas Locke remains a dualist. Q: What is the problem of substance in Locke? TYPE:ES POINTS: 2 ANSWER: According to Locke, qualities must be qualities of something. Furthermore, we experience only qualities. So Locke says we never have any experience of "substance" since by definition substance is what "stands under" the qualities.
Yet Locke also says all knowledge comes from experience (the experience of qualities). So if we never experience substance, how can Locke say ANYTHING about it at all? That's the problem. Here's Locke talking about substance, when by his own epistemological principles, he can't know anything about substance.
Locke recognized the problem, and concluded that substance must exist, but he had no idea what it might be. It was, in his words, "something I know not what."
Berkeley thought this was plainly contradictory. So Berkeley applied Ockham's razor to the concept of substance, and got rid of material reality altogether! Q: What role does God play in Berkeley's metaphysics and epistemology? TYPE: ES POINTS: 2 ANSWER: Berkeley's idealism creates a problem. If there are only ideas, then why do our sense data seem so consistent? For example, why couldn't I just will to "fly" (meaning, of course, experience the sense data that would correspond to flying if there were a world to fly in)? But I don't. If "to be is to be perceived", then why don't things seem to flash out of being as soon as I stop perceiving them? My "world" is pretty much the same from moment to moment. Furthermore, why do other "people" (strictly speaking, my sense data of what APPEAR to be other people) seem to have pretty much the same sense-data I do? You'd think that if everyone inhabited their own mental worlds, they'd behave far more differently.
GOD fixes all this, in Berkeley. HE's always perceiving everything. And since "to be is to be perceived", and God never looks away, "things" (sense data) remain consistent and continuous.