Objectives and Readings for Part 5


In this section we learn about fallacies. A fallacy is a typical mistake in reasoning.

When you are finished with this section, you should be able to identify instances of all the following fallacies:

  • Accident (Appeal to a saying)
  • Ad hominem
  • Appeal to general belief
  • Appeal to ignorance
  • Appeal to inappropriate authority
  • Affirming the consequent
  • Bandwagon arguments
  • Begging the question
  • Circular reasoning
  • Compatibility with all states of affairs
  • Composition
  • Continuum fallacy
  • Denying the antecedent
  • Division
  • Equivocation
  • False dilemma (false dichotomy, black and white fallacy)
  • False, misleading, dubious analogy
  • Gambler's fallacy
  • Hasty generalization
  • Impromptu definition (persuasive definition, definitional dodge)
  • Inconsistency and special pleading
  • Inference based solely on temporal succession (the post hoc fallacy)
  • Inference from a correlation to a causal link (the correlation fallacy)
  • Innuendo, loaded words
  • Irrelevant emotional appeal (appeal to popular but irrelevant attitudes and emotions, such as appeal to fear, guilt, vanity, pity, patriotism, etc.)
  • Loaded or complex question
  • Objectionable vagueness
  • Poisoning the well
  • Pooh-pooh fallacy
  • Quibbling
  • Slippery slope
  • Straw man









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